The first feature visualisation technique I implemented is saliency maps.
We’re going to look at it in more detail below, along with how to use FlashTorch to implement it with your neural networks.
Saliency mapsSaliency, in human visual perception, is a subjective quality that makes certain things in the field of view stand out and grab our attention.
Saliency maps in computer vision can give indications of the most salient regions within images.
Examples of saliency maps.
SourceThe method to create saliency maps from convolutional neural networks (CNNs) was first introduced in 2013 in the paper Deep Inside Convolutional Networks: Visualising Image Classification Models and Saliency Maps.
Authors reported that, by calculating the gradients of a target class with respect to an input image, we can visualise the regions within the input image, which have effects on the prediction value of that class.
Saliency maps using FlashTorchWithout further ado, let’s use FlashTorch and visualise saliency maps ourselves!FlashTorch comes with some utils functions to make data handling a bit easier too.
We’re going to use this image of great grey owl as an example.
Then we’ll apply some transformations to the image to make its shape, type and values suitable as an input to a CNN.
I’m going to use the AlexNet which has been pre-trained with ImageNet classification dataset for this visualisation.
In fact, FlashTorch supports all the models that come with torchvision out of the box, so I encourage you to try out other models too!TheBackprop class is the core to creating saliency maps.
On instantiation, it takes in a model Backprop(model) and registers custom hooks to layers of interest within the network, so that we can grab the intermediate gradients out of the computational graph for visualisation.
These intermediate gradients are not immediately available to us, due to how PyTorch is designed.
FlashTorch sorts this out for you :)Now, one final thing we need before calculating the gradients — the target class index.
To recap, we’re interested in the gradients of the target class with respect to the input image.
However, the model is pre-trained with the ImageNet dataset and therefore its prediction is provided as a probability distribution over 1000 classes.
We want to pinpoint the value of the target class (in our case great grey owl) out of these 1000 values to avoid unnecessary computation and to focus only on the relationship between the input image and the target class.
For this, I also implemented a class called ImageNetIndex.
If you don’t want to download the whole dataset, and just want to find out class indices based on class names, this is a handy tool.
If you give it a class name, it will find the corresponding class index target_class = imagenet['great grey owl'].
If you do want to download dataset, use the ImageNet class provided in the latest release of torchvision==0.
Now, we have the input image and the target class index (24), so we’re ready to calculate gradients!These two lines are the key:gradients = backprop.
calculate_gradients(input_, target_class)max_gradients = backprop.
calculate_gradients(input_, target_class, take_max=True)By default, gradients will be calculated per colour channel, so it’s shape will be the same as the inputs image — (3, 224, 224) in our case.
Sometimes it’s easier to visualise the gradients if we take the maximum gradients across colour channels.
We can do so by passing take_max=True to the method call.
The shape of the gradients will be (1, 224, 224).
Finally, let’s visualise what we’ve got!From far left: input image, gradients across colour channels, max gradients, an overlay of input image and max gradientsWe can appreciate that pixels in the area where the animal is present have the strongest effects on the value of the prediction.
But this is kind of noisy… the signal is spread and it doesn’t tell us much about the neural network’s perception of an owl.
Is there a way to improve this?Guided backproagation to the rescueThe answer is yes!In the paper Striving for Simplicity: The All Convolutional Net, authors introduced an ingenues way to reduce noise in gradients calculation.
SourceIn essence, in guided backpropagation, neurons that have no effects or negative effects on the prediction value of a target class are masked out and ignored.
By doing so, we can prevent the flow of gradients through such neurons, resulting in less noise.
You can use guided backprobagation in FlashTorch, by passing guided=True to the method call of calculate_gradients, like so:Let’s visualise guided gradients.
The difference is striking!Now we can clearly see that the network is paying attention to the sunken eyes and the round head of an owl.
These are the characteristics that “convinced” the network to classify the object as great grey owl.
But it doesn’t always focus on the eyes or the heads…As you can see, the network has learnt to focus on traits which are largely in line with what we would deem the most distinguishing things about these birds.
Applications of feature visualisationWith feature visualisation, not only can we obtain better understanding on what the neural network has learnt about objects, but also we are better equipped to:Diagnose what the network gets wrong and whySpot and correct biases in algorithmsStep forward from only looking at accuracyUnderstand why the network behaves in the way it doesElucidate mechanisms of how neural nets learnUse FlashTorch today!If you have projects which utilise CNNs in PyTorch, FlashTorch can help you make your projects more interpretable and explainable.
The package is available to install via pip.
Check out the GitHub repo for the source code.
Please let me know what you think if you use it!.I would really appreciate your constructive comments, feedback and suggestions ????Thanks, and happy coding!.