Multi-dimension plots in Python — From 3D to 6D.
Prasad OstwalBlockedUnblockFollowFollowingMay 28Image: Multi-dimension plots (Illustration purpose only)IntroductionVisualization is most important for getting intuition about data and ability to visualize multiple dimensions at same time makes it easy.
In this tutorial we will draw plots upto 6-dimensions.
Plotly python is an open source module for rich visualizations and it offers loads of customization over standard matplotlib and seaborn modules.
Plotly can be installed directly using pip install plotly.
We will use plotly to draw plots.
Let’s import dataFor visualization, we will use simple Automobile data from UCI which contains 26 different features for 205 cars(26 columns x 205 rows).
We will use following six features out of 26 to visualize six dimensions.
Only first 4 rows shown out of 205Import CSV data using pandas.
Now that we have our data ready, let’s start with 2 Dimensions first.
2-D Scatter PlotScatter plot is the simplest and most common plot.
Out of 6 features, price and curb-weight are used here as y and x respectively.
Unlike Matplotlib, process is little bit different in plotly.
We have to make ‘layout’ and ‘figure’ first before passing them to a offline.
plot function and then output is saved in html format in current working directory.
Here’s the screenshot of html plot.
You can find interactive HTML plots in GitHub repository link given at the bottom.
2-D Scatter Plot3-D Scatter plot:We can add third feature horsepower on Z axis to visualize 3D plot.
Plotly provides function Scatter3Dto plot interactive 3D plots.
3-D PlotInstead of embedding codes for each plot in this blog itself, I’ve added all codes in repository given at the bottom.
Do check out.
Adding 4th Dimension:We know we cannot visualize higher dimensions directly, but here’s the trick: We can use fake depth to visualize higher dimensions by using variations such as color, size and shapes.
Here, along with earlier 3 features, we will use city mileage feature- city-mpg as fourth dimension, which is varied using marker colors by parameter markercolor of Scatter3D.
Here lighter blue color represents lower mileage.
Observations: It’s pretty evident from the 4D plot that higher the price, horsepower and curb weight, lower the mileage.
4-D Plot with marker color as 4th Dimension (color represents ’city-mpg’ feature)Adding 5th Dimension:Size of the marker can be used to visualize 5th dimension.
Here we will use engine-size feature to vary size of marker using markersize parameter of Scatter3D.
Observations: Engine size variations can be clearly observed with respect to other four features here.
Higher the price, higher the engine size.
Also lower the mileage, higher the engine-size.
5-D Plot with marker size as 5th Dimension (size represents ‘engine-size’ feature)Adding 6th Dimension:Using shape of marker, categorical values can be visualized.
Plotly provides about 10 different shapes for 3D Scatter plot( like Diamond, circle, square etc).
So 10 at most 10 distinct values can be used as shape.
We have num-of-doors feature which contains integers for number of doors( 2and 4) These values can be converted into shapes string by defining shape of square for 4 doors and circle for 2 doors, which will be passed to markersymbol parameter of Scatter3D.
Observations: In this 6D plot, lower priced cars seem to have 4 doors(circles).
We will get more insights into data if observed closely.
6-D Plot with marker shape as 6th Dimension (shape represents ‘num-of-doors’ feature)Can we add more dimensions?Certainly we can!.Marker has more properties such as opacity and gradients which can be utilized.
But if we add more dimensions, it makes it difficult to appreciate marker points.
Source Code:Python code and interactive plot for all figures is hosted on GitHub here.
Thanks for reading!.Suggestions are welcome.