In the next section, we will look at the dataset for the problem which should help clear up any lingering questions you might have on this statement.

You can download the dataset from this link: Indoor User Movement Prediction.

Reading and Understanding the Data Our dataset comprises of 316 files: 314 MovementAAL csv files containing the readings from motion sensors placed in the environment A Target csv file that contains the target variable for each MovementAAL file One Group Data csv file to identify which MovementAAL file belongs to which setup group The Path csv file that contains the path which the object took Let’s have a look at the datasets.

We’ll start by importing the necessary libraries.

import pandas as pd import numpy as np %matplotlib inline import matplotlib.

pyplot as plt from os import listdir from keras.

preprocessing import sequence import tensorflow as tf from keras.

models import Sequential from keras.

layers import Dense from keras.

layers import LSTM from keras.

optimizers import Adam from keras.

models import load_model from keras.

callbacks import ModelCheckpoint Before loading all the files, let’s take a quick sneak peek into the data we are going to deal with.

Reading the first two files from the movement data: df1 = pd.

read_csv(‘/MovementAAL/dataset/MovementAAL_RSS_1.

csv) df2 = pd.

read_csv(/MovementAAL/dataset/MovementAAL_RSS_2.

csv) df1.

head() df2.

head() df1.

shape, df2.

shape ((27, 4), (26, 4)) The files contain normalized data from the four sensors – A1, A2, A3, A4.

The length of the csv files (number of rows) vary, since the data corresponding to each csv is for a different duration.

To simplify things, let us suppose the sensor data is collected every second.

The first reading was for a duration of 27 seconds (so 27 rows), while another reading was for 26 seconds (so 26 rows).

We will have to deal with this varying length before we build our model.

For now, we will read and store the values from the sensors in a list using the following code block: path = MovementAAL/dataset/MovementAAL_RSS_ sequences = list() for i in range(1,315): file_path = path + str(i) + .

csv print(file_path) df = pd.

read_csv(file_path, header=0) values = df.

values sequences.

append(values) targets = pd.

read_csv(MovementAAL/dataset/MovementAAL_target.

csv) targets = targets.

values[:,1] We now have a list ‘sequences’ that contains the data from the motion sensors and ‘targets’ which holds the labels for the csv files.

When we print sequences[0], we get the values of sensors from the first csv file: sequences[0] As mentioned previously, the dataset was collected in three different pairs of rooms – hence three groups.

This information can be used to divide the dataset into train, test and validation sets.

We will load the DatasetGroup csv file now: groups = pd.

read_csv(MovementAAL/groups/MovementAAL_DatasetGroup.

csv, header=0) groups = groups.

values[:,1] We will take the data from the first two sets for training purposes and the third group for testing.

Preprocessing Steps Since the time series data is of varying length, we cannot directly build a model on this dataset.

So how can we decide the ideal length of a series?.There are multiple ways in which we can deal with it and here are a few ideas (I would love to hear your suggestions in the comment section): Pad the shorter sequences with zeros to make the length of all the series equal.

In this case, we will be feeding incorrect data to the model Find the maximum length of the series and pad the sequence with the data in the last row Identify the minimum length of the series in the dataset and truncate all the other series to that length.

However, this will result in a huge loss of data Take the mean of all the lengths, truncate the longer series, and pad the series which are shorter than the mean length Let’s find out the minimum, maximum and mean length: len_sequences = [] for one_seq in sequences: len_sequences.

append(len(one_seq)) pd.

Series(len_sequences).

describe() count 314.

000000 mean 42.

028662 std 16.

185303 min 19.

000000 25% 26.

000000 50% 41.

000000 75% 56.

000000 max 129.

000000 dtype: float64 Most of the files have lengths between 40 to 60.

Just 3 files are coming up with a length more than 100.

Thus, taking the minimum or maximum length does not make much sense.

The 90th quartile comes out to be 60, which is taken as the length of sequence for the data.

Let’s code it out: #Padding the sequence with the values in last row to max length to_pad = 129 new_seq = [] for one_seq in sequences: len_one_seq = len(one_seq) last_val = one_seq[-1] n = to_pad – len_one_seq to_concat = np.

repeat(one_seq[-1], n).

reshape(4, n).

transpose() new_one_seq = np.

concatenate([one_seq, to_concat]) new_seq.

append(new_one_seq) final_seq = np.

stack(new_seq) #truncate the sequence to length 60 from keras.

preprocessing import sequence seq_len = 60 final_seq=sequence.

pad_sequences(final_seq, maxlen=seq_len, padding=post, dtype=float, truncating=post) Now that the dataset is prepared, we will separate it based on the groups.

Preparing the train, validation and test sets: train = [final_seq[i] for i in range(len(groups)) if (groups[i]==2)] validation = [final_seq[i] for i in range(len(groups)) if groups[i]==1] test = [final_seq[i] for i in range(len(groups)) if groups[i]==3] train_target = [targets[i] for i in range(len(groups)) if (groups[i]==2)] validation_target = [targets[i] for i in range(len(groups)) if groups[i]==1] test_target = [targets[i] for i in range(len(groups)) if groups[i]==3] train = np.

array(train) validation = np.

array(validation) test = np.

array(test) train_target = np.

array(train_target) train_target = (train_target+1)/2 validation_target = np.

array(validation_target) validation_target = (validation_target+1)/2 test_target = np.

array(test_target) test_target = (test_target+1)/2 Building a Time Series Classification model We have prepared the data to be used for an LSTM (Long Short Term Memory) model.

We dealt with the variable length sequence and created the train, validation and test sets.

Let’s build a single layer LSTM network.

Note: You can get acquainted with LSTMs in this wonderfully explained tutorial.

I would advice you to go through that first as it’ll help you understand how the below code works.

model = Sequential() model.

add(LSTM(256, input_shape=(seq_len, 4))) model.

add(Dense(1, activation=sigmoid)) model.

summary() We will now train the model and monitor the validation accuracy: adam = Adam(lr=0.

001) chk = ModelCheckpoint(best_model.

pkl, monitor=val_acc, save_best_only=True, mode=max, verbose=1) model.

compile(loss=binary_crossentropy, optimizer=adam, metrics=[accuracy]) model.

fit(train, train_target, epochs=200, batch_size=128, callbacks=[chk], validation_data=(validation,validation_target)) #loading the model and checking accuracy on the test data model = load_model(best_model.

pkl) from sklearn.

metrics import accuracy_score test_preds = model.

predict_classes(test) accuracy_score(test_target, test_preds) I got an accuracy score of 0.

78846153846153844.

It’s quite a promising start but we can definitely improve the performance of the LSTM model by playing around with the hyperparameters, changing the learning rate, and/or the number of epochs as well.

End Notes That brings us to the end of this tutorial.

The idea behind penning this down was to introduce you to a whole new world in the time series spectrum in a practical manner.

Personally, I found the preprocessing step the most complex section of all the ones we covered.

Yet, it is the most essential one as well (otherwise the whole point of time series data will fail!).

Feeding the right data to the model is equally important when working on this kind of challenge.

Here is a really cool time series classification resource which I referred to and found the most helpful: Paper on “Predicting User Movements in Heterogeneous Indoor Environments by Reservoir Computing” I would love to hear your thoughts and suggestions in the comment section below.

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