Specifically, researchers often must decide whether to use a fixed or random effects approach in an analysis like this.In this post, we’ll discuss some of the differences between fixed and random effects models when applied to panel data — that is, data collected over time on the same unit of analysis — and how these models can be implemented in the programming language Python.Fixed vs..random effects in panel dataBroadly speaking, the distinction between a fixed effects approach and a random effects approach concerns the correlation — or lack thereof — between unobserved variables and observed variables..That means we cannot separately estimate the effect of firms’ location on their performance.This is quite restrictive for some applications, so researchers who might be interested in studying the effect of time-invariant variables may want to choose the random effects framework instead, even though these models impose stronger assumptions about the unobserved effects.Using Python to implement the modelsNext, we’ll illustrate how to implement panel data analysis in Python, using a built-in dataset on firms’ performance from the `linearmodels` library that follows from the example discussed above.. More details